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glossar
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PostPosted: Wed Oct 08, 2014 10:13 pm 
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Vulnerability refers to the inability to withstand the effects of a hostile environment.
A cognitive vulnerability, in cognitive psychology, is an erroneous belief, cognitive bias, or pattern of thought that is believed to predispose the individual to psychological problems.
It is in place before the symptoms of psychological disorders start to appear; after the individual encounters a stressful experience, the cognitive vulnerability shapes a maladaptive response that may lead to a psychological disorder.
Encyclopedia of Cognitive Behavior Therapy. New York: Springer. pp. 122–26.


A maladaptation is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful.
It can also signify an adaptation that, whilst reasonable at the time, has become less and less suitable and more of a problem or hindrance in its own right, as time goes on.
This is because it is possible for an adaptation to be poorly selected or become less appropriate or even become on balance more of a dysfunction than a positive adaptation, over time.


Invulnerability is a common feature found in video games.
It makes the player impervious to pain, damage or loss of health.
It can be found in the form of "power-ups" or cheats;
when activated via cheats, it is often referred to as "god mode".


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Re: glossar
PostPosted: Fri Nov 07, 2014 2:28 pm 
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A cool story to go along with my morning coffee.


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Re: glossar
PostPosted: Sat Nov 08, 2014 2:01 pm 
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A cool story that goes well along the morning coffee would be an MIT paper that I'm unable to find right now.
Unfortunately, I've never bothered to store a reference. I hope it wont turn into a bad habit just like the morning coffee.
Now let me try to summarize, what I understood of that lost paper, and please excuse the missing references below.


It is somewhat a misconception that caffeine is a "stimulant of the central nervous system.", which is Google's definition with an unknown source thanks to Wikipedia users, who just like me tend to skip a reference every now and then.

Scientists show that caffeine tempers with the adenosine receptors.
Adenosine is "a neuromodulator, believed to play a role in promoting sleep and suppressing arousal."

Unlike other drugs considered psychoactive such as Delta-9-THC or cocaine, caffeine doesn't make neurons release unusually high amounts of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that boost cognitive functions,
even though the adenosine receptors A1 and A2a are "regulating the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and glutamate".

Caffeine deceives the mind; it inhibits adenosine receptors and prevents us from feeling sleepy.
Another example of such a deception are chemicals found in corn syrup that block the hormone leptin, which signals the brain — the stomach is full.

But is that all caffeine really does?
"Of the known biochemical actions of caffeine, only inhibition of adenosine receptors occurs at concentrations achieved during normal human consumption of the drug."
Fredholm, B. B. (1995), Adenosine, Adenosine Receptors and the Actions of Caffeine . Pharmacology & Toxicology, 76: 93–101. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0773.1995.tb00111.x
Seems like it.

Still, the effects we experience after consumption of coffee are caused by the noradrenaline and the way our bodies counteract the noradrenaline with cortisol.
Actually, this is how caffeine affects indirectly the vascular system and thus the blood flow throughout the whole body.
"Caffeine stimulates the adrenal glands to increase cortisol release. Cortisol then elevates heart rate and blood pressure..."

Ultimately, prolonged higher levels of cortisol in the body lead to:
Blood sugar imbalance, higher blood pressure, lower immunity and slower wound healing.
Also, "depression comes from a disturbance in noradrenalin levels."


Basically, you are taking psychoactive drug at the most inappropriate time, which does nothing else but lying to your body, and has terrible long-term effects.


http://lifehacker.com/5585217/what-caff ... your-brain
This article tells a similar story.
It describes well, how exactly caffeine tempers with the adenosine receptors; it also somewhat explains, how are the adrenal glands affected and it bitterly goes on with tolerance and withdrawal.


There is, however, something I'd like to assert.
Namely, "It is most inappropriate to consume coffee right after we wake up, because the adenosine levels at that point are rather low."

http://www.researchgate.net/publication ... e400000000
This paper compares methods of adenosine concentration measurement.
Scientists are named, results are given. Nevertheless my expertise is next to non-existent in the field and I'm unable to interpret the given numbers in any way. The dimensions are unknown to me and the circumstances described in the text add more blur to picture.
I am therefore unable to test my assumption that adenosine levels are rather low right after we wake up.
These levels are however strictly individual and highly circumstantial.
The assumption would be most likely valid for healthy people, who had their natural amount of sleep regularly in the course of a rather calm week.


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Re: glossar
PostPosted: Mon Dec 08, 2014 4:30 pm 
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"Caffeine and theophylline (10 mg/kg) block the potentiating effect of adenosine, and also decrease basal responses to nicotine."

Von Borstel, Reid W., Andrew A. Renshaw, and Richard J. Wurtman. "Adenosine strongly potentiates pressor responses to nicotine in rats." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 81.17 (1984): 5599-5603.

Turns out I've stored a reference after all. By the time I was investigating the effects of caffeine and nicotine combined.


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Re: glossar
PostPosted: Fri Jan 09, 2015 3:28 am 
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